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Reforming data analysis methods in behavioral research

From the 1960s and 1970s onward, language, symbolism, text, and meaning came to be seen as the theoretical foundation for the humanities, through the influence of Ludwig WittgensteinFerdinand de SaussureGeorge Herbert MeadNoam ChomskyHans-Georg GadamerRoland BarthesJacques Derrida and other thinkers in linguistic and analytic philosophy, structural linguisticssymbolic interactionismhermeneuticssemiology, linguistically oriented psychoanalysis (Jacques LacanAlfred Lorenzer), and deconstruction.[citation needed]

When, in the 1970s and 1980s, Jürgen Habermas redefined critical social theory as a study of communication, i.e. communicative competence and communicative rationality on the one hand, distorted communication on the other, the two versions of critical theory began to overlap to a much greater degree than before Critical theorists have widely credited Paulo Freire for the first applications of critical theory towards education/pedagogy. They consider his best-known work, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, a seminal text in what is now known as the philosophy and social movement of critical pedagogy. For a history of the emergence of critical theory in the field of education, see Isaac Gottesman (2016), The Critical Turn in Education: From Marxist Critique to Postructuralist Feminism to Critical Theories of Race (New York: Routledge).