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Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin.

The subjects of this cohort study were recruited from the Diabetes Outpatient Clinic of Juntendo University, (Tokyo, Japan) Naka Memorial Clinic (Naka, Japan) or Secomedic Hospital (Funabashi, Japan) as previously described [15] [21] [22]. T2DM patients who were between 25 and 70 years of age without history of apparent CVD were included.

A total of 1,032 consecutive subjects were screened as previously described [15]. Briefly, among them, 906 patients who met the above eligibility criteria were invited to participate in the present study. After providing information on the purpose and procedures of the study, 736 patients with T2DM were recruited. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Juntendo University Hospital and conducted in accordance with the principles described in the Declaration of Helsinki. All patients provided written informed consent prior to participation. The study has been registered on the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000010932).