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radiobiological impact of hypofractionated choroidal melanoma brachytherapy

The MPB/ pine tree host (e.g. Pinus contorta) system has long been the subject of research because of the economic and ecological impact of the beetles. As an aggressive bark beetle (one that kills its host), eruptions of this species are impressive events resulting in intensive and extensive outbreaks. It is also becoming recognized that disturbances, such as insect outbreaks, may be central to maintaining the structure, function and health of western forests . One method to help understand this dual role of bark beetles as an economic competitor and as a co-evolved component of the ecosystem is the development and analysis of quantitative models. These spatially independent models have achieved some success, but fail to capture the full sequence of events necessary for successful population establishment and expansion. Aggregation on and dispersal from a host are of such overriding importance to MPB ecology that including spatial dynamics in model representations is essential for ecological credibility. The theoretical literature abounds with models for the tactic interactions of species with themselves, one another, or their resource environment (see, for example, reviews in Murray, 1989; However, the penetration of theoretical viewpoints into the real world of spatial ecology is limited by the lack of parametrized spatial models. Whereas many models of purely temporal population phenomena have been parametrized and subsequently used to organize understandings in practical population ecology (see, for example, input from the world of PDE models of spatial dynamics is still mainly in the form of hints and possibilities but not actualities. Of course, parametrizing a spatial model is no simple task.