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Public International Law

One of the most dramatic and significant world trends in the past two decades has been the rapid, sustained growth of international business. Markets have become truly global for most goods, many services, and especially for financial instruments of all types. World product trade has expanded by more than 6 percent a year since 1950, which is more than 50 percent faster than growth of output the most dramatic increase in globalization, has occurred in financial markets. In the global forex markets, billions of dollars are transacted each day, of which more than 90 percent represent financial transactions unrelated to trade or investment. Much of this activity takes place in the so-called Euromarkets, markets outside the country whose currency is used. This pervasive growth in market interpenetration makes it increasingly difficult for any country to avoid substantial external impacts on its economy. In particular massive capital flows can push exchange rates away from levels that accurately reflect competitive relationships among nations if national economic policies or performances diverse in short run. The rapid dissemination rate of new technologies speeds the pace at which countries must adjust to external events. Smaller, more open countries, long ago gave up illusion of domestic policy autonomy. But even the largest and most apparently self-contained economies, including the US, are now significantly affected by the global economy. Global integration in trade, investment, and factor flows, technology, and communication has been tying economies together