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Possible societal responses to global warming

Future climate change effects are expected to include rising sea levelsocean acidificationregional changes in precipitation, and expansion of deserts in the subtropics.Surface temperature increases are greatest in the Arctic, with the continuing retreat of glacierspermafrost, and sea ice. Predicted regional precipitation effects include more frequent extreme weather events such as heat wavesdroughtswildfires, heavy rainfall with floods, and heavy snowfallEffects directly significant to humans are predicted to include the threat to food security from decreasing crop yields, and the abandonment of populated areas due to rising sea levels.Environmental impacts appear likely to include the extinction or relocation of ecosystems as they adapt to climate change, with coral reefsmountain ecosystems, and Arctic ecosystems most immediately threatened.Because the climate system has a large “inertia” and greenhouse gases will remain in the atmosphere for a long time, climatic changes and their effects will continue to become more pronounced for many centuries even if further increases to greenhouse gases stop.[

Possible societal responses to global warming include mitigation by emissions reduction, adaptation to its effects, and possible future climate engineering. Most countries are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), whose ultimate objective is to prevent dangerous anthropogenic climate change. Parties to the UNFCCC have agreed that deep cuts in emissions are required and that global warming should be limited to well below 2.0 °C (3.6 °F) compared to pre-industrial levels, with efforts made to limit warming to 1.5 °C (2.7 °F).Some scientists call into question climate adaptation feasibility, with higher emissions scenarios, or the two degree temperature target.[

Public reactions to global warming and concern about its effects are also increasing. A 2015 global survey showed that a median of 54% of respondents consider it “a very serious problem”, with significant regional differences: Americans and Chinese (whose economies are responsible for the greatest annual CO2 emissions) are among the least concerne