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What is cultural heritage first aid? The immediate and interdependent actions taken to stabilise and reduce risks to endangered cultural heritage during and after an emergency are collectively defined as cultural heritage first aid. The immediate cause of such an emergency may be a natural or man-made hazard, or a combination of both. First aid includes the analysis of an emergency situation and its likely effects on cultural heritage; on-site damage and risk assessment; and security and stabilisation. The overall aim of first aid is to promote the recovery of affected cultural heritage, in turn facilitating the recovery of the communities connected to it. Within an institutional emergency or crisis response plan, cultural heritage first aid forms part of emergency response procedures. In many cases, especially in the aftermath of large-scale disasters, cultural heritage first aid is often initiated only after the officiallydeclared emergency phase is over. Nonetheless, prior preparation and coordination will still help to ensure quick and effective cultural heritage first aid, should an emergency arise. Emergency stabilisation of a temple in Kathmandu, Nepal, 2015. Photo: ICCROM. Introducing cultural heritage first aid 11 CULTURAL HERITAGE FIRST AID ACTION FRAMEWORK How can we provide first aid for different types of cultural heritage in emergencies? This Handbook outlines a three-step action framework for providing first aid for all types of cultural heritage in multiple locations. The framework is based on ICCROM’s international and multipartner course on First Aid to Cultural Heritage in Times of Crisis (FAC), extensive field experience, and interdisciplinary collaboration with professionals worldwide. As no two emergencies are the same, the actions described within the framework are to be tailored to individual contexts.