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political connotations.

Population census is a complete statistical process, which provides information on
demographic, economic and social data, which relate, at a given time period, to all the
residents of a country or of a well-defi ned area. Population census includes questions on
ethnic, racial, linguistic, religious lines, etc. The release of total population by ethnic/religious
groups may touch sensitive controversial issues in the post-confl ict countries because census
results can directly aff ect the distribution of power and the allocation of public goods. The
timing of the census may follow ethnic/religious tensions. In this situations, censuses come
aft er ethnic/religious confrontations of serious consequences take place.
Republic of Macedonia has a substantial non-majority population. In the late 1990s and
the beginning of 2000s, inter-ethnic violence jeopardized peaceful coexistence between
the country’s two major ethnic groups, Macedonians and Albanians. A decade aft er its
independence, the security crisis in the fi rst half of 2001 brought the country to the brink of
a civil war. Since its independence in September 1991, four population censuses (1991, 1994,
2002 and 2011) were conducted in the country, of which only two (1994 and 2002) have been
successful.
This study aims to investigate how census politics in the Republic of Macedonia has been
used as a political device and how the census process has engendered tensions. This study
demonstrates how census becomes more politicized process in post-confl ict environments.