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otoprotective effects of intravenous STS in animal models

Urine and Serum chemistry

Table-1 shows the levels of urea, creatinine and calcium in the urine, and their corresponding serum concentration is depicted in Table-2. Induction group rats showed a significant decrease in the concentration of urea, creatinine in urine, while its serum concentration was significantly higher as compared to normal control rats. Administration of rats with STS, diazoxide, glibenclamide+STS exhibits near normal levels of urea, creatinine and calcium in both urine and serum as compared to normal control rats.

Table 1 Urine Chemistry. 

ParametersNormal controlInduction controlTreatment groups
STS aloneDiazoxide aloneGlibenclamide aloneDiazoxide+STSGlibenclamide+STS
Urea (mg/mL)11.12±0.96.06 ±1.2*9.07±1.310.77±1.57.33±0.8*8.92±1.310.29±1.5
Creatinine (µm/L)12.13±1.46.26±1.5*9.42±0.48.99±2.93.94±0.2*6.93±1.8*7.24±1.5*
Calcium (mg/24hr)0.95±0.12.44±0.2*1.10±0.30.69±0.1*1.23±0.31.28±0.20.60±0.1*

Group-1 = served as normal control; Group-2 = as a stone induction control; Group-3 = was given STS; Group-4 and Group-5 = were administered diazoxide and glibenclamide respectively and Groups 6 and 7 = were pretreated with diazoxide and glibenclamide respectively half an hour before administration of STS. Data of all results are presented as mean±SD (*) p<0.05, statistically different from normal controls.

Table 2 serum Chemistry. 

ParametersNormal controlInduction controlTreatment groups
STS aloneDiazoxide aloneGlibenclamide aloneDiazoxide +STSGlibenclamide +STS
Urea (mg/dL)16.50±0.941.94±1.1*18.76±1.219.55±1.329.93±1.2*16.42±1.613.74±1.3
Creatinine (mg/ dL)0.35±0.021.03±0.07*0.38±0.020.35±0.060.58±0.02*0.38±0.040.35±0.06
ALP (U/L)57.03±2.3115.96±2.9*49.25±2.450.73±3.276.18±2.4*70.14±4.2*41.39±2.1
Calcium (mg/dL)6.21±0.55.14±0.94.46±0.7*3.34±0.7*1.57±0.2*4.31±0.7*4.10±0.9*

Group-1 = served as normal control; Group-2 = as a stone induction control; Group-3 = was given STS; Group-4 and Group-5 = were administered diazoxide and glibenclamide respectively and Groups 6 and 7 were pretreated with diazoxide and glibenclamide respectively half an hour before administration