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otoprotection toxic effects of cis-and carboplatin.

Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease of kidney where crystals or foreign bodies can act as nidi, upon which ions from the supersaturated urine form microscopic crystalline structures . The formation of these crystals in the tubular fluid, followed by crystal retention and accumulation in the kidney are the pre-requisite for the development of renal stone. Free particle model, fixed particle model and Randall’s plaque hypothesis are some well-established hypothesis for stone formation and growth However, molecular understanding of all these theories underlines the importance of oxidative stress in the renal stone formation.

Thiosulfate, an endogenous molecule derived from the metabolism of H2S, is reported to have antioxidant and chelation property Sodium thiosulfate, FDA approved drug is used to lessen the side effects of cisplatin and widely used in the emergency treatment of cyanide poisoning Due to the availability of the sulfur group for the donations and free radical scavenging potential, STS can essentially act as an anti-urolithiatic agent Few studies by Asplin and his co-workers and Yatzidis showed that thiosulfate can prevent calcium phosphate nephrolithiasis. However, LaGrange et al., 2009 reported negative results for thiosulfate in the prevention of calcium stone disease . In fact, in both studies, the mechanism by which STS affects calcium deposition was not clearly mentioned.