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Neurons as the information processing cells

 During brain development the walls of the ventricles are the site of most neuron production.Although the neocortex of the brain may appear to be relatively uniform in structure (lateral view), it is actually parcellated into structurally and functionally distinct areas. The areas differ in the kinds of neurons they contain, the kinds of input they receive, and in the types of connections they make with other brain areas. These structural differences result in functional differences creating brain areas that are specialized for carrying out different kinds of processes.

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Schematic drawing of a neuron. Each neuron a single large axon. At the distal tip of the axon is a growth cone that serves to guide the axon to targeted brain regions. Once the axon reaches the target site, synapses, or points of connection, form between the axon and the target neuron. The synapse allows electrochemical signals to be transmitted to the target neuron. Each neuron also has a complex arbor of dendrites that receive information from other neurons. Image in the public domain uploaded from