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Narcissism in the workplace

As described above, I/O psychologists are trained in the scientist–practitioner model. I/O psychologists rely on a variety of methods to conduct organizational research. Study designs employed by I/O psychologists include surveysexperimentsquasi-experiments, and observational studies. I/O psychologists rely on diverse data sources including human judgments, historical databases, objective measures of work performance (e.g., sales volume), and questionnaires and surveys.

I/O researchers employ quantitative statistical methods. Quantitative methods used in I/O psychology include correlationmultiple regression, and analysis of variance. More advanced statistical methods employed in I/O research include logistic regressionstructural equation modeling,[17] and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM; also known as multilevel modeling).[18] I/O research has also employed meta-analysis.[19][20][21] I/O psychologists also employ psychometric methods including methods associated with classical test theory,[22] generalizability theory, and item response theory (IRT).[23]

I/O psychologists have also employed qualitative methods, which largely involve focus groupsinterviews, and case studies. I/O research on organizational culture research has employed ethnographic techniques and participant observation. A qualitative technique associated with I/O psychology is Flanagan’s Critical Incident Technique.[24] I/O psychologists sometimes use quantitative and qualitative methods in concert.[25] OHP researchers have also combined and coordinated quantitative and qualitative methods within a single