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mortality and morbidity.

We systematically searched MEDLINE and the Global Health Data Exchange (GHDx) to identify studies providing nationally or subnationally representative estimates of consumption of 15 foods and nutrients. We included only studies reporting data collected between Jan 1, 1980, and Dec 31, 2016, in one of the 195 countries included in this analysis. Studies were excluded if done with non-random samples or among specific subpopulations. We estimated the potential health effects of each dietary risk by use of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study comparative risk assessment approach.Added value of this studyThis study provides a comprehensive picture of consumption of 15 dietary factors across nations and quantifies the potential impact of suboptimal intake of each diet component on chronic disease mortality and morbidity among 195 countries. Additionally, this study characterises the relationship between diet and development and evaluates the trends in the burden of disease attributable to diet from 1990 to 2017. High intake of sodium, low intake of whole grains, and low intake of fruits were the leading dietary risk factors for deaths and DALYs globally and in many countries.Implications of all the available evidenceThis study highlights the need for improving diet at the global, regional, and national level. The findings inform priorities for population-level interventions to improve diet.