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modern industrial economy

Global warming is a long-term rise in the average temperature of the Earth‘s climate system, an aspect of climate change shown by temperature measurements and by multiple effects of the warmingThough earlier geological periods also experienced episodes of warming,[the term commonly refers to the observed and continuing increase in average air and ocean temperatures since 1900 caused mainly by emissions of greenhouse gasses in the modern industrial economy.[In the modern context the terms global warming and climate change are commonly used interchangeably,but climate change includes both global warming and its effects, such as changes to precipitation and impacts that differ by region.Many of the observed warming changes since the 1950s are unprecedented in the instrumental temperature record, and in historical and paleoclimate proxy records of climate change over thousands to millions of years

In 2013, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report concluded, “It is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century.”The largest human influence has been the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxidemethane, and nitrous oxideClimate model projections summarized in the report indicated that during the 21st century, the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 0.3 to 1.7 °C (0.5 to 3.1 °F) to 2.6 to 4.8 °C (4.7 to 8.6 °F) depending on the rate of greenhouse gas emissions and on climate feedback effects.These findings have been recognized by the national science academies of the major industrialized nations[ and are not disputed by any scientific body of national or international standing.