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modeling and simulation of molecular models

Approximately 35.6 million people worldwide and more than 5 million in the United States suffer from dementia. Every 66 seconds, a person in the United States develops dementia . Almost 90% of all affected with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) experience behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), resulting in increased healthcare costs, heavier burden on caregivers, poor patient outcomes, early nursing home placement, long-term hospitalizations, and misuse of medications . BPSD play a major role in increasing burden on the caregivers of individuals affected with dementia . BPSD is not only a contributor to caregiver distress but also a major cause for nursing home placement . As the number of affected people increases, the need for caregiver also increases. More than 15 million family and friends of affected people provide care for the person affected with AD. In 2016, over $236 billion dollars were spent on dementia [1]. Indirect cost increase due to BPSD in person affected with AD was 25% above the cost of AD, while the direct costs increase was 35% above the direct AD costs

As the disease progresses, many affected individuals develop psychological problems in the form of behavior issues such as agitation, irritability, aggression, depression, delusions and hallucinations, wandering, and sleep disorders Among behavioral symptoms, approximately 88% of the patients suffer from apathy, 66% suffer from aggression, and 60% suffer from irritability, while among psychological symptoms, 56% of patients suffer from depression, 55% suffer from delusions, and 52% suffer from anxiety. In one study, not only were behavioral symptoms found to be more prevalent, but these symptoms were also more stressful to caregivers than the psychological symptoms If these symptoms are not treated, they can reduce the quality of life, expedite functional decline, and cause early transfer to assisted living . Of these symptoms, the most prevalent and distressing were behavioral symptoms such as agitation, irritability, and apathy The stress process model identifies BPSD as the greatest source of stress on caregivers . Persons with mild to moderate AD who are affected with BPSD often require frequent supervision, monitoring, and support. This poses several challenges, especially in rural parts of the country due to limitations in resources. Approximately 30% of the total costs for AD are from BPSD management . As per the US census of 2010, approximately 19.3% of the US population resides in rural areas that covers 97% of the land Due to the large distances between the rural communities, the residents in rural areas are faced with greater health care barriers than their urban counterparts. Some of the barriers experienced by the residents in rural areas are constrained access to care, limited resource availability, overlapping clinician roles, long distance provider commute, and clinician training constraints