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migration patterns: structures and policy

The German school system is still mainly publically organized. However, private schools have started diminishing the state monopoly on education. While in 1992 only 4.8 percent of German students attended non-public schools, in 2012 already 8.5 percent of children attended a private school (Statistisches Bundesamt, 2014c). Private schools in Germany can be separated into replacement schools (“Ersatzschulen”) and supplement schools (“Ergänzungsschulen”). Replacement schools are equivalent to public schools in terms of organization, teacher qualifications and educational objectives. Hence, the school leaving certificates of private replacement schools are equivalent to the ones of public schools. In contrast, supplement schools are more prevalent in the field of vocational schooling, and students cannot obtain regular school leaving certificates. In Germany there are no fees for attending public schools. To the contrary, there is public support available for children through the Federal Training Assistance Act (BAföG) introduced in 1971. Principally eligible are secondary school students (post tenth grade) that do not live at their parents’ household. However, there are different detailed criteria for the above described schools. The maximum funding is 538 Euros per month, and there is no repayment necessary. In 2013, approximately 293,000 secondary school students received monetary support according to the BAföG, and the monthly average of the grant was 410 Euros (Statistisches Bundesamt). 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 100000 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 total amount of early school leavers share of early school leavers 12 Eichhorst, Wozny and Cox 1.2.2 Tertiary Education In Germany, the tertiary education system can mainly be separated into the classical universities and the universities of applied sciences (“Fachhochschule”). Additionally, there are some specialized colleges focusing solely on arts, public administration or sports. Classical universities cover the full range of academic disciplines, e.g., medical education, political science or philology. The teaching at universities is mainly theoretical and research-oriented. In contrast, the teaching at the “Fachhochschule” is usually rather practical and work-orientated. Additionally, universities of applied sciences do not cover the whole range of academic disciplines. Instead their study program focuses on technical sciences and practical disciplines like business administration and social work. Moreover, universities of applied sciences do not have the right to award doctoral degrees like classical universities do. However, both types of universities conduct research. Additionally, research in Germany is conducted by public and privately funded research institutes which are independent from the universities. Besides these classical studies at universities, there are cooperative study programs (“Duales Studium”). Those programs combine rather practical-oriented studies at the university with on-the-job training at private companies. Hence, those students are primarily employees with a fixed-term contract and regular payment with social insurance contributions (§ 20 SGB IV).