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migrant groups.

Western constructs of bereavement may prove to be of only partial or limited value in explaining expressions of grief when applied to people from other cultures; however, this is an area worth further study. All human beings get bereaved, but the cultural norms are essential in dealing with bereavement. Western views of bereavement include the progression through stages of grief, psychoanalytic theories of loss, and behavioural theories. Davies and Bhugra refer to Bowlby’s contribution to the understanding of loss and the function and course of grief. In application of his attachment theory, Bowlby described four phases of mourning, including numbing, yearning and anger, disorganization and despair, and reorganization. Psychoanalytic theorists have described the role of the unconscious and ambivalence in grief; abnormal grief reactions are felt to be unconsciously driven and involve ambivalent feelings to the lost object with resultant depressive symptoms including significant decline in self-esteem