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“Memories of working in Oswald Avery’s laboratory

Cell injury and Cellular Adaptive Changes The life cycle of a cell exists on continuum that includes normal activities and adaptation, injury or lethal changes. Adaptation is a normal life cycle adjustment like in growth during puberty; changes during pregnancy or aging and stressful life style produce physiologic changes that may lead to adaptation or disease. The cell constantly makes adjustments to a changing, hostile environment to keep the organism functioning in normal steady state which is necessary to ensure the survival of the Pathophysiology 2 organism. Prevention of disease by the body depends on the capacity of the affected cells to undergo self-repair and regeneration i.e. adaptive-changes. – When cells are confronted to one of the following stimulus, they may undergo adaptive changes. The common stimuli are:- a) Physical agents o Trauma, Burn, pressure, irradiation, etc b) Chemical agents o Poisons, drugs, simple compounds, etc. c) Micro organisms – Bacteria – Virus – Fungus – Parasites d) Hypoxia – Is the most common stimuli (cause) – Is because of inadequate oxygen in the blood or decreased tissue Perfusion. e) Genetic defects – Can affect cellular metabolism through inborn errors of metabolism or gross malformation f) Nutritional imbalances Pathophysiology 3 – Under nutrition or over nutrition causes cellular injury or changes. g) Immunologic reaction E.g. – Hypersensitivity reaction.