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“Medical Genetics: Multifactorial Inheritance”

Hip dysplasia is an abnormality of the hip joint where the socket portion does not fully cover the ball portion, resulting in an increased risk for joint dislocation.[1] congenital dysplasia of the hip (CDH)[3] Hip dysplasia may occur at birth or develop in early life.[1] Regardless, it does not typically produce symptoms in babies less than a year old.[2] Occasionally one leg may be shorter than the other.[1] The left hip is more often affected than the right.[2] Complications without treatment can include arthritis, limping, and low back pain.[2]

Risk factors for hip dysplasia include family history, certain swaddling practices, and breech birth.[2] If one identical twin is affected, there is a 40% risk the other will also be affected.[2] Screening all babies for the condition by physical examination is recommended.[2] Ultrasonography may also be useful.[2]

Many of those with mild instability resolve without specific treatment.[2] In more significant cases, if detected early, bracing may be all that is required.[2] In cases that are detected later, surgery and casting may be needed.[2] About 7.5% of hip replacementsare done to treat problems which have arisen from hip dysplasia.[2]

About 1 in 1,000 babies have hip dysplasia.[2] Hip instability of meaningful importance occurs in one to two percent of babies born at term.[2] Females are affected more often than males