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Management Information Systems Strategies and Actions

IronyThis discrepancy between expectation and reality occurs in three forms: situational irony, where a situation features a discrepancy between what is expected and what is actualized; dramatic irony, where a character is unaware of pivotal information already revealed to the audience (the discrepancy here lies in the two levels of awareness between the character and the audience); and verbal irony, where one states one thing while meaning another. The difference between verbal irony and sarcasm is exquisitely subtle and often contested. The concept of irony is too often misunderstood in popular usage. Unfortunate circumstances and coincidences do not constitute irony (nor do they qualify as being tragic). See the Usage controversysection under irony, and the term tragedy.A person hears a prophecy about himself. His endeavor to stop the prophecy from coming true, makes it come true.
MetaphorEvoking imagination by means of using figurative language.Her tears were a river flowing down her cheeks.
Thematic patterningDistributing recurrent thematic concepts and moralistic motifs among various incidents and frames of a story. In a skillfully crafted tale, thematic patterning may emphasize the unifying argument or salient idea disparate events and disparate frames have in common.Each of the chapters of Ulysses by James Joyce.