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Juxtaposition: Ideas, people, images, ideas, or object placed next to one another to highlight their differences.

 Juxtaposition

What is it: Ideas, people, images, ideas, or object placed next to one another to highlight their differences.

Example:

“It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way.”

—Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities

Here, Dickens juxtaposes multiple circumstances, uses opposites for emphasis.

. Malapropism

What is it: An incorrect word intentionally or unintentionally used in place of a similar-sounding one, sometimes used for humorous effect.

Example:

“Our watch, sir, have indeed comprehended two auspicious persons.”

—William Shakespeare, Much Ado Without Nothing, Act 3, scene 5

The malapropisms, in this case, are the misuse of “comprehended” in place of “apprehended” and “auspicious” instead of “suspicious.”

. Metaphor

What is it: A comparison of two ideas, events, objects, or people that does not use “like” or “as.”

An extended metaphor is a lengthy metaphor that continues the comparison for several sentences, paragraphs, or even pages.

Example:

“But soft! What light through yonder window breaks?

It is the East, and Juliet is the sun!

Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon,

Who is already sick and pale with grief.”

—William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, Act 2, Scene 2

Here, the sun is a metaphor for Juliet.

. Mood

What is it: The general feeling the speaker evokes in the reader through the atmosphere, descriptions, and other features.

Example:

“Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing,

Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before”

—Edgar Allen Poe, The Raven

Poe evokes an air of mystery in the opening lines of his poem, setting a dark mood.