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Intimate partner violence and stalking behaviour

Borderline personality disorder is characterised by a chronic fear of abandonment and/or rejection (American Psychiatric Association, 2000), with a pervasive instability in self image, interpersonal relationships and mood (Oltmanns and Emery, 2006). The borderline both wants an intimate relationship and fears the abandonment that may result from it, and becomes anxious over realistic time-limited separations. 6 Dependent Personality Disorder involves a pervasive pattern of dependent and submissive behaviour (Oltmanns and Emery, 2006). Dependent individuals rely excessively on others, even for mundane input into such things as clothing choice. Because so much emphasis is placed on others, dependents have a problem being autonomous. This may result in frantic efforts to establish new relationships immediately upon the termination of old ones, or in seeking out potential relationships prior to old ones ending. The Avoidant Personality is marked by a pervasive pattern of social discomfort, fear of negative appraisal, and timidity (Oltmanns and Emery, 2006). Concerns over negative appraisal do not necessarily need to be real. As stated by Gertzfeld (2006, p. 223), “[individuals] with Avoidant Personality Disorder are fearful of the possibility of criticism, rejection, or disapproval and, therefore, will usually not engage in social relationships unless they are assured of being liked”. Histrionic Personality Disorder is characterised by attention seeking and gross emotionality. Their attention seeking is such that if they are not the centre of attention, they become uncomfortable (Gertzfeld, 2006), which may result in increasingly raucous behaviour to acquire attention. While their emotions are extreme, they tend to be superficial yet blown out of proportion.