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International prosecution of genocide

Abrupt transitions from more authoritarian rule to more open, institutionalized governance systems, defined by the State Failure Task Force as “democratic transitions,” are not considered state failures in this sense and, thus, are not included.

Additional variables specific to the Adverse Regime Change episodes are as follows:

  • MAGFAIL – Scaled failure of state authority (range 1-4; 9=missing)
  • MAGCOL – Scaled collapse of democratic institutions (range 1-4; 9=missing)
  • MAGVIOL – Scaled violence associated with regime transition (range 1-4; 9=missing)
  • MAGAVE – Average of the three magnitude scores (range 1-4.0; 9=missing)
  • POLITYX – Type of regime change

Genocides and Politicides

Genocide and politicide events involve the promotion, execution, and/or implied consent of sustained policies by governing elites or their agents or in the case of civil war, either of the contending authorities that result in the deaths of a substantial portion of a communal group or politicized non communal group. In genocides the victimized groups are defined primarily in terms of their communal (ethnolinguistic, religious) characteristics. In politicides, by contrast, groups are defined primarily in terms of their political opposition to the regime and dominant groups.

Genocide and politicide are distinguished from state repression and terror. In cases of state terror authorities arrest, persecute or execute a few members of a group in ways designed to terrorize the majority of the group into passivity or acquiescence. In the case of genocide and politicide authorities physically exterminate enough (not necessarily all) members of a target group so that it can no longer pose any conceivable threat to their rule or interests.

Additional variables specific to the Genocide/Politicide episodes are as follows:

  • DEATHMAG – Scaled annual number of deaths (range 0-5.0)