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Intergenerational & Historic Trauma

. Recognize past and current experiences of trauma and violence as a potential risk factor for opioid misuse and that substance use can be a form of coping with the effects of trauma, sometimes differently for women, men, trans and gender-diverse people. 2. Be able to recognize the effects of trauma in patients/clients and also in staff, and how it may look for different people. 3. Assume “universal precautions.” Most of the time, there is no need to ask patients/clients about the details of past or current experiences of trauma. Adapt procedures, practices, and services to reflect an understanding that trauma is common and assume that any or all patients/clients may have experiences of trauma. 4. Learn about local programs and services that provide trauma specific treatment for women, men, trans and gender-diverse people who may be interested in a referral. Also consider integrated, interdisciplinary, multimodal, or holistic programs that address multiple concerns related to trauma, addiction, and chronic pain. 5. There are many reasons why people may use opioids. For individuals who use opioids or other substances as a way of coping with the effects of trauma, it may be helpful to normalize their responses. Ask if they are interested in more information about the effects of trauma and offer hope for healing.