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Influential political philosophers

Ancient Greece[edit]

Western political philosophy originates in the philosophy of ancient Greece, where political philosophy dates back to at least Plato.[10]Ancient Greece was dominated by city-states, which experimented with various forms of political organization, grouped by Plato into five categories of descending stability and morality: monarchytimocracyoligarchydemocracy and tyranny. One of the first, extremely important classical works of political philosophy is Plato’s Republic,[10] which was followed by Aristotle‘s Nicomachean Ethics and Politics.[11] Roman political philosophy was influenced by the Stoics and the Roman statesman Cicero.[12]

Medieval Christianity[edit]

Augustine of Hippo

Thomas Aquinas

Saint Augustine[edit]

The early Christian philosophy of Augustine of Hippo was heavily influenced by Plato. A key change brought about by Christian thought was the moderation of the Stoicism and theory of justice of the Roman world, as well emphasis on the role of the state in applying mercy as a moral example. Augustine also preached that one was not a member of his or her city, but was either a citizen of the City of God (Civitas Dei) or the City of Man (Civitas Terrena). Augustine’s City of God is an influential work of this period that attacked the thesis, held by many Christian Romans, that the Christian view could be realized on Earth.[13]