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infamous totalitarian rulers

Totalitarianism is a political concept of a mode of government that prohibits opposition parties, restricts individual opposition to the state and its claims, and exercises an extremely high degree of control over public and private life. It is regarded as the most extreme and complete form of authoritarianismPolitical power in totalitarian states has often been held by rule by one leader which employ all-encompassing propaganda campaigns broadcast by state-controlled mass media. Totalitarian regimes are often marked by political repressionpersonality cultismcontrol over the economyrestriction of speechmass surveillance and widespread use of state terrorism. Historian Robert Conquest describes a “totalitarian” state as one recognizing no limits to its authority in any sphere of public or private life and which extends that authority to whatever length feasible.[1]

The concept was first developed in the 1920s by both Weimar jurist (and later Nazi academic) Carl Schmitt and, concurrently, by the Italian fascists. Italian fascist Benito Mussolini said “Everything within the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state”. Schmitt used the term Totalstaat in his influential 1927 work on the legal basis of an all-powerful state, The Concept of the Political.[2] The term gained prominence in Western anti-communist political discourse during the Cold War era as a tool to convert pre-war anti-fascism into postwar anti-communism