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industrial and organizational psychology

Organizational citizenship behavior
Main article: Organizational citizenship behavior
Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) are another form of workplace behavior that I/O psychologists are involved with. OCBs tend to be beneficial to both the organization and other workers. Dennis Organ (1988) defines OCBs as “individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization.”[117] Behaviors that qualify as OCBs can fall into one of the following five categories: altruism, courtesy, sportsmanship, conscientiousness, and civic virtue.[117][118][119] OCBs have also been categorized in other ways too, for example, by their intended targets (individuals, supervisors, and the organization as a whole.[120] Other alternative ways of categorizing OCBs include “compulsory OCBs,” which are engaged in owing to coercive persuasion or peer pressure rather than out of good will.[121] The extent to which OCBs are voluntary has been the subject of some debate.[121]

Other research suggests that some employees perform OCBs to influence how they are viewed within the organization. While these behaviors are not formally part of the job description, performing them can influence performance appraisals.[55] Researchers have advanced the view that employees engage in OCBs as a form of “impression management,” a term coined by Erving Goffman.[122] Goffman defined impression management as “the way in which the individual … presents himself and his activity to others, the ways in which he guides and controls the impression they form of him, and the kinds of things he may and may not do while sustaining his performance before them. Some researchers have hypothesized that OCBs are not performed out of good will, positive affect, etc., but instead as a way of being noticed by others, including supervisors