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Individual psychological assessment

According to Bryan and Vinchur, “while organizational psychology increased in popularity through [the 1960s and 1970s], research and practice in the traditional areas of industrial psychology continued, primarily driven by employment legislation and case law” (p. 53).[16] There was a focus on fairness and validity in selection efforts as well as in the job analyses that undergirded selection instruments. For example, i/o psychology showed increased interest in behaviorally anchored rating scales.[16] What critics there were of i/o psychology accused the discipline of being responsive only to the concerns of managements.[16]

From the 1980 to 2010s other changes in i/o psychology took place. Researchers increasingly adopted a multi-level approach, attempting to understand behavioral phenomena from both the level of the organization and the level of the individual worker.[16] There was also an increased interest in the needs and expectations of employees as individuals. For example, an emphasis on organizational justice and the psychological contract took root, as well as the more traditional concerns of selection and training.[16] Methodological innovations (e.g., meta-analysesstructural equation modeling) were adopted. With the passage of the American with Disabilities Act in 1990 and parallel legislation elsewhere in the world, i/o psychology saw an increased emphasis on “fairness in personnel decisions.”[16] Training research relied increasingly on advances in educational psychology and cognitive