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Indexing, B and B+ trees

The traditional database security cannot deal malicious attacks by persons with legal entity and is not cost effective to users having different security requirements. The multilayer security model with user, OS, DBMS and transaction level intrusion tolerance integrates redundancy and various technology by adopting integral security strategy and service oriented intrusion tolerance technology. A number of techniques such as encryption and electronic signatures are available to protect data transmission across websites. For data protection enforcement of access control policies based on data contents, subject qualifications and characteristics, and other relevant contextual information, such as time mechanisms are used. Semantics of data considered to specify active access control policies. The network database system provide an open environment for information storage and management with massive data. Great loss will occur once the data loss, illegal tampering or code loss also happens within the network database. The main database security risks are unauthorized or unintended activity or misuse by authorized database users, database administrators, or network or system managers, or by unauthorized users or hackers inappropriate access to sensitive data, metadata or functions within databases, or inappropriate changes to the database programs, structures or security configurations. Also malware infections causing incidents such as unauthorized access, leakage or disclosure of personal or proprietary data, deletion of or damage to the data or programs, interruption or denial of authorized access to the database, attacks on other systems and the unanticipated failure of database services may occur in database.The performance overload constraints and capacity issues resulting in the inability of authorized users to use databases as intended. The physical damage to database servers caused by computer room fires or floods, overheating, lightning, accidental liquid spills, static discharge, electronic breakdowns or equipment failures and obsolescence also contribute as risks