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improving policy development,

We identified three major data sources—DHIS2, Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), and claims data—and highlighted some of the challenges and opportunities with each. DHIS2 data are widely available and have few privacy concerns due to aggregation to the facility level. They suffer, though, from data quality gaps and are only useful for facility-level analysis due to this aggregation. DHS and other routine household survey data are of high quality, are easily available, and have few privacy concerns. The time lag between surveys and the limited range of questions on quality and financing, however, limit their usefulness to inform policy decisions in a reasonable timeframe. Claims data hold a great deal of promise for evaluating utilization, quality of care, and expenditures for countries with national health insurance schemes. These schemes, though, are often nascent or non-existent in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Even in countries with national health insurance, such as Ghana, Indonesia, and the Philippines, data completeness, privacy, and storage issues cause concerns.