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Canadian environmental quality guidelines, developed under the auspices of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), are numerical concentrations or narrative statements recommended to support and maintain designated resource uses. Canadian soil quality guidelines can be used as the basis for consistent assessment and remediation of contaminated sites in Canada. This report was prepared by Health Canada and the National Guidelines and Standards Office of Environment Canada, which acts as Technical Secretariat for the CCME Soil Quality Guidelines Task Group. The Guidelines were derived according to the procedures described in A Protocol for the Derivation of Environmental and Human Health Soil Quality Guidelines (CCME 2005). Following the introduction, Chapter 2 presents chemical and physical properties of uranium and a review of the sources and emissions in Canada. Chapter 3 discusses uranium’s distribution and behavior in the environment. Chapter 4 discusses the behavioural effects and bioaccumulation of uranium in biota, including soil microbial processes, terrestrial plants, animals and livestock and wildlife. Chapter 5 reports toxicological effects of uranium in humans and mammalian species. The above information is reflected in Chapter 6 which outlines the derivation procedure for the calculation of soil quality guidelines for uranium to protect human and environmental receptors in four types of land uses: agricultural, residential/parkland, commercial, and industrial. The following soil quality guidelines for uranium are recommended by CCME based on the available scientific data. The uranium environmental soil quality guideline (SQGE) for agricultural land use is 33 mg/kg soil. An SQGE of 500 mg/kg soil was determined for residential/parkland land use, and an SQGE of 2000 mg/kg soil was determined for commercial and industrial land uses. The preliminary human health soil quality guidelines (PSQGHH) for uranium are 23 mg/kg soil for agricultural land uses, 23 mg/kg soil for residential/parkland land uses, 33 mg/kg soil for commercial land use, and 300 mg/kg soil for industrial land use. Therefore, the final SQGs for uranium for the protection of both human and environmental health are 23 mg/kg soil for agricultural land use, 23 mg/kg soil for residential/parkland land use, 33 mg/kg soil for commercial land use and 300 mg/kg soil for industrial land use