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Hypofunction of the pituitary gland

Diagnostic studies Simultaneous measurements of urine and serum osmolality. Diabetes insipidus (DI) Diabetes insipidus is associated with a deficiency of production or secretion of ADH or a decreased renal response to ADH. The decrease in ADH results in fluid and electrolyte imbalances caused by increased urinary output and increased plasma osmolality. There are several classifications of diabetes inspitdus. Central DI (also known as neurogenic DI)occurs when any organic lesion of the hypothalamus, infundibular stem, or posterior pituitary interferes with ADH synthesis, transport, or release. Nephrogenic DI describes a condition in which there is adequate ADH, but there is a decreased response to ADH in the kidney. Lithium is one of the most common causes of drug-induced nephrogenic DI. Hypokalemia and hypercalcemia may also lead to nephrogenic DI. Psychogenic DI, a less common condition is associated with excessive water intake. This can be caused by a structural Pathophysiology 169 lesion in the thirst center or may be caused by psychiatric problems.