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hydroxylamine hydrochloride in 1865 by the German chemist Wilhelm Clemens Lossen (1838-1906);

Hydroxylamine and its salts are commonly used as reducing agents in myriad organic and inorganic reactions. They can also act as antioxidants for fatty acids.

Conversion from cyclohexanone to caprolactam involving the Beckmann Rearrangement can be understood with this scheme.

In the synthesis of nylon 6cyclohexanone (1) is first converted to its oxime (2); treatment of this oxime with acid induces the Beckmann rearrangement to give caprolactam (3):

The nitrate salt, hydroxylammonium nitrate, is being researched as a rocket propellant, both in water solution as a monopropellant and in its solid form as a solid propellant.

This has also been used in the past by biologists to introduce random mutations by switching base pairs from G to A, or from C to T. This is to probe functional areas of genes to elucidate what happens if their functions are broken. Nowadays other mutagens are used.

Hydroxylamine can also be used to highly selectively cleave asparaginylglycine peptide bonds in peptides and proteins. It also bonds to and permanently disables (poisons) heme-containing enzymes. It is used as an irreversible inhibitor of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosynthesis on account of its similar structure to water.

This route also involves the Beckmann Rearrangement, like the conversion from cyclohexanone to caprolactam.

An alternative industrial synthesis of paracetamol developed by HoechstCelanese involves the conversion of ketone to a ketoxime with hydroxylamine.

Some non-chemical uses include removal of hair from animal hides and photography developing solutions. in the semiconductor industry, hydroxylamine is often a component in the “resist stripper”, which removes photoresist after lithography.