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history of immunology


1796: Edward Jenner was the first to demonstrate the smallpox vaccine.

1840: Jakob Henle put forth the first modern proposal of the germ theory of disease.

1857-1870: The role of microbes in fermentation was confirmed by Louis Pasteur.

1880-1881: The theory that bacterial virulence could be used as vaccines was developed. Pasteur put this theory into practice by experimenting with chicken cholera and anthrax vaccines. On May 5, 1881, Pasteur vaccinated 24 sheep, one goat, and six cows with five drops of live attenuated anthrax bacillus.

1885: Joseph Meister, 9 years old, was injected with the attenuated rabies vaccine by Pasteur after being bitten by a rabid dog. He is the first known human to survive rabies.

1886: American microbiologist Theobold Smith demonstrated that heat-killed cultures of chicken cholera bacillus were effective in protecting against cholera.

1903: Maurice Arthus described the localizing allergic reaction that is now known as the Arthus response.

1949: John Enders, Thomas Weller and Frederick Robbins experimented with the growth of polio virus in tissue culture, neutralization with immune sera, and demonstration of attenuation of neurovirulence with repetitive passage.

1951: Vaccine against yellow fever was developed.

1983: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) was discovered by French virologist Luc Montagnier.

1986: Hepatitis B vaccine was produced by genetic engineering.

2005: Ian Frazer developed the human papillomavirus vaccine.

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