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harmonic existence and in peaceful coexistence with both nature and other human beings

ainism Connections and Reflection on Environment: “Do not injure, abuse, oppress, enslave, insult, torment, torture, or kill any creature or living being.” (Mahavira)

“As a highly evolved form of life, human beings have a great moral responsibility in their mutual dealings and in their relationship with the rest of the universe. It is this conception of life and its eternal coherence, in which human beings have an inescapable ethical responsibility, that made the Jain tradition a cradle for the creed of environmental protection and harmony.” (The Jain Declaration on Nature, 1990).

Judaism: In tradition, the land and environment are properties of God, and it is the duty of humankind to take care of it. The book of genesis, as an example, proposes that the garden in Eden was initially the chosen territory chosen by God for human to live.

Jewish Connections and Reflection on Environment: “And God said: ‘Behold, I have given you every herb yielding seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed–to you it shall be for food.” (Gen 1:29)

“The Earth is the Lord’s and the fullness thereof”(Psalm 24)

“[…] the Earth is Mine, you are My tenants”(Leviticus 25:23)

Shinto: Shinto is a religion based on Kamis, spirits corresponding to natural entities: wind, rocks, water, etc. It makes the faithful very close to nature to preserve the relation of each person with the spirits. These relations encourage preservation of the environment (Japan Experience, 2017). Related to the kami, it is expected that Shinto followers are in harmonic existence and in peaceful coexistence with both nature and other human beings (PATHEOS, n.d. [a]). In tradition, Shinto is already deeply committed with environment because forests are sacred.

Shinto Connections and Reflection on Environment: “I will give over to my child the rice-ears of the sacred garden, of which I partake in the Plain of High Heaven.” (Nihongi II.23)

“The plan is for Religious Forests to be managed in ways which are religiously compatible, environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial and economically viable.” (Jinja Honcho, 2009)

Sikhism: Sikhism is a native Indian religion appeared in the late 15th century founded by the first guru, Guru Nanak Dev Ji. The sacred text is written by the foundational scripture Guru Granth Sahib where there are several teachings on environment. The Sikh holy site is managed by Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (S.G.P.C.), and this organization makes decisions for the global Sikh community, especially on environment.

Sikh Connections and Reflection on Environment: “You, Yourself created the Universe, and You are pleased…You, Yourself the bumblebee, flower, fruit and the tree.” (Guru Granth Sahib, Maru Sohele, page 1020)

“You, Yourself the water, desert, ocean and the pond. You, Yourself are the big fish, tortoise and the Cause of causes.” (Guru Granth Sahib, Maru Sohele, page 1020)

Taoism: Taoism, or Daoism, is an old Chinese religion based on the divine harmony between nature and humanity.  Briefly, the Dao principle consists in “a path” where you find the appropriate way to behave and to lead others.