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glycated hemoglobin in middle-aged male workers of diabetes mellitus

This is the first report on the relationship between clustered lifestyle, not a single aspect of lifestyle, and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters in patients with T2DM. Using factor analysis, lifestyle patterns in real daily life can be classified into three factors; morningness-eveningness, sleep quality and depressive state (type 1 pattern), consumption of food, alcohol and cigarettes (type 2 pattern), and physical activity (type 3 pattern). Interestingly, each lifestyle is associated with distinct cardio-renal -metabolic parameters.

Subjects with a higher score of type 1 pattern characterized by evening type, poor sleep quality and depressive status showed poor glycemic control and higher ALT and UAE levels in this study. It may be reasonable that these characteristics correlated well with each other because previous reports showed a tendency for such association[14] [15]. These individuals tend to have later dinners, frequent late evening snacks, and less frequent breakfast and consume more food. They were considered to consume a greater amount of their daily energy intake at late time of the day. A previous study demonstrated that late dinnertime increases in postprandial glucose levels after breakfast in the following morning compared to usual dinner time condition through a higher effect of late dinners on carbohydrate digestion and absorption of dietary carbohydrates [30]. Therefore, it seems that late eating could result in worsening of glycaemic control. In addition, consistent with our findings, evening type was shown to be related to more depressive symptoms [31]. Depressive status may also negatively affect glucose metabolism through increased counter-regulatory hormones [19].