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Heterogeneous treatment effects on civic and political knowledge

When the participant responds affirmatively to any civic activity question, the enumerator then asks the respondent to describe participation in each discrete event. The enumerator records all responses in a civic event register. Each event observation includes the date,
number of people involved, details about the issue at hand, and any follow-up or response.
Subsequently, each event is anonymously verified by either the village chief or commune
secretary. Fewer than one percent of reported activities were not verified. In total, the civic
event register contains 9406 observations reported by 3716 respondents. The number of civic
events reported per person is significantly correlated at 0.56 with the Survey activity index.9
Because the civic event register requires the respondent to provide detailed information
about each event, it is more difficult to fabricate responses. This is borne out in the data:
836 respondents, or 15 percent of the sample, reported engaging at least occasionally in civic
activities on the survey but then failed to provide accounts of civic engagement in the event
register. In contrast, only 61 people, or 1 percent of the sample, reported never engaging in
civic activities on the survey and then described at least one civic event on the register