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Foundational Concepts of Chemistry

Control of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes (BIO)

  • Operon Concept, Jacob–Monod Model
  • Gene repression in bacteria
  • Positive control in bacteria

Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes (BIO)

  • Transcriptional regulation
  • DNA binding proteins, transcription factors
  • Gene amplification and duplication
  • Post-transcriptional control, basic concept of splicing (introns, exons)
  • Cancer as a failure of normal cellular controls, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes
  • Regulation of chromatin structure
  • DNA methylation
  • Role of non-coding RNAs

Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology (BIO)

  • Gene cloning
  • Restriction enzymes
  • DNA libraries
  • Generation of cDNA
  • Hybridization
  • Expressing cloned genes
  • Polymerase chain reaction
  • Gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting
  • DNA sequencing
  • Analyzing gene expression
  • Determining gene function
  • Stem cells
  • Practical applications of DNA technology: medical applications, human gene therapy, pharmaceuticals, forensic evidence, environmental cleanup, agriculture
  • Safety and ethics of DNA technology