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Experimental Design and Ethics

Determine what the key terms refer to in the following study.

A study was conducted at a local college to analyze the average cumulative GPA’s of students who graduated last year. Fill in the letter of the phrase that best describes each of the items below.

1._____ Population 2._____ Statistic 3._____ Parameter 4._____ Sample 5._____ Variable 6._____ Data

a) all students who attended the college last year b) the cumulative GPA of one student who graduated from the college last year c) 3.65, 2.80, 1.50, 3.90 d) a group of students who graduated from the college last year, randomly selected e) the average cumulative GPA of students who graduated from the college last year f) all students who graduated from the college last year g) the average cumulative GPA of students in the study who graduated from the college last year

Solution 1.2 1. f; 2. g; 3. e; 4. d; 5. b; 6. c

Example

Determine what the key terms refer to in the following study.

As part of a study designed to test the safety of automobiles, the National Transportation Safety Board collected and reviewed data about the effects of an automobile crash on test dummies. Here is the criterion they used:

Speed at which Cars Crashed Location of “drive” (i.e. dummies)

35 miles/hour Front Seat

Cars with dummies in the front seats were crashed into a wall at a speed of 35 miles per hour. We want to know the proportion of dummies in the driver’s seat that would have had head injuries, if they had been actual drivers. We start with a simple random sample of 75 cars.

Solution 1.3

SAMPLING AND DATA

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The population is all cars containing dummies in the front seat.

The sample is the 75 cars, selected by a simple random sample.

The parameter is the proportion of driver dummies (if they had been real people) who would have suffered head injuries in the population.

The statistic is proportion of driver dummies (if they had been real people) who would have suffered head injuries in the sample.

The variable X = the number of driver dummies (if they had been real people) who would have suffered head injuries.

The data are either: yes, had head injury, or no, did not.

Example

Determine what the key terms refer to in the following study.

An insurance company would like to determine the proportion of all medical doctors who have been involved in one or more malpractice lawsuits. The company selects 500 doctors at random from a professional directory and determines the number in the sample who have been involved in a malpractice lawsuit.