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Examining the Strange Situation procedure with Japanese mothers

With the integration of global economy, the number of clients from various cultural backgrounds with different health related attributes, cultural practices, healthcare needs, and expectations increased in all the industrialized countries. Therefore, cultural competence, which is the ability to respond to cultural diversity inside healthcare systems, is highly expected [1]Nurses, who form the largest groups of healthcare workforce and who work in most locations where healthcare is provided, must possess cultural competence to ensure safe and quality nursing service.

However, the meaning of cultural competence is ambiguous in the literature [2][3]. The terms “culture” and “competence”, which are derived from the concept, are complex ideas without consensus on either term. Inconsistencies and debates exist on the conceptual understanding of cultural competence in the literature. The terminologies in this area, including cultural competence, cultural safety, cross-cultural competence, or transcultural nursing, are also used interchangeably or as personal preference because of the lack of clear definitions [2].

In pursuing culturally competent care, difficulties were recognized and experienced by clinicians and researchers in healthcare systems [4][5]. For example, when a research tool is designed to evaluate current practice or when strategies are planned, the ambiguous understanding of cultural competence acts as the main barrier in achieving culturally competent care. Thus, further clarification of cultural competence is essential for related nursing dialog, research, and practice. This concept analysis aimed to clarity the definition of cultural competence to help develop future research tools and improve communication in this area.