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establishing joint ventures

“International business” is also defined as the study of the internationalization process of multinational enterprises. A multinational enterprise (MNE) is a company that has a worldwide approach to markets, production and/or operations in several countries. Well-known MNEs include fast-food companies such as: McDonald’s (MCD), YUM (YUM), Starbucks Coffee Company (SBUX), Microsoft (MSFT), etc. Other industrial MNEs leaders include vehicle manufacturers such as: Ford Motor Company, and General Motors (GMC). Some consumer electronics producers such as Samsung, LG and Sony, and energy companies such as Exxon Mobil, and British Petroleum (BP) are also multinational enterprises.

Multinational enterprises range from any kind of business activity or market, from consumer goods to machinery manufacture; a company can become an international business. Therefore, to conduct business overseas, companies should be aware of all the factors that might affect any business activities, including, but not limited to: difference in legal systems, political systems, economic policylanguageaccounting standardslabor standards, living standards, environmental standardslocal culturescorporate culturesforeign-exchange marketstariffsimport and export regulations, trade agreementsclimate, and education. Each of these factors may require changes in how companies operate from one country to another. Each factor makes a difference and a connection.

One of the first scholars to engage in developing a theory of multinational companies was Canadian economist Stephen Hymer.[1] Throughout his academic life, he developed theories that sought to explain foreign direct investment (FDI) and why firms become multinational.