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environmentally-friendly behavior

When on holiday, tourists (and in particular mass tourists) want to escape their everyday life (McKerner, 1993; Dolnicar & Grun, 2009), and they exhibit atypical behavior compared to how they behave at home. In terms of sustainability, tourists tend to be less involved in environmentally-friendly behavior, and focus less on the social impact of their actions. Despite this, some tourists are more inclined to sustainability (Dolnicar, 2015; Dolnicar & Long, 2009). Tourists that are potentially of this type include visitors to parks and natural protected areas, those who spend their holidays in eco-lodges (for instance, certified facilities), excursionists, climbers, adventure tourists, vegetarians and vegans, campers, members of environmental and/or social associations/NGOs (WWF, Friends of the Earth),and [volun]tourists (tourists choosing specific destinations characterized by important social issues in order to give aid to specific communities). y looking for a good balance between ‘protection’ and ‘accessibility’ is the contribution that business can make to sustainable tourism. However, finding such a balance is not the only target for a tourism business. Indeed, in defining sustainable pathways of growth, it is necessary to balance the complexity of sustainability-related issues with criteria and standards of comfort and hospitality, as well as traditional efficiency goals. Efficiently allocating natural resources (such as energy and freshwater consumption) and human resources (such as staff), is essential in order to increase the competiveness of companies, and to attract as many clients as possible through a high quality service based on a good reputation. In summary, safeguarding the local natural and socio-cultural heritage, making it available for tourists to enjoy, guaranteeing specific levels of quality and standards and, finally, managing resources in an efficient way, represent the areas that need to be managed by tourism businesses, and represent their main challenge in relation to sustainability. One of the problems in finding a balance amongst the various forces is the fact that only a minimal number of the negative impacts produced at social and environmental levels are generated by the provider of the service, that is the tourism business. Unlike the principal industrial sectors, in the tourism sector the impacts are primarily “indirect”, that is the impacts linked to the decisions and behaviors of many different types of parties, other than business, including the very users of the service. Directing these different elements towards more sustainable behavior is one of the strategies that the most active businesses need to consider. Before outlining the tools used by businesses, it is opportune to highlight the demand side, in order to draw a profile of the sustainable tourist.