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environmental Risk Assessment

Risk assessment is a critical element of environmental management. In this survey course, you’ll explore its major elements and better understand how environmental risk is defined, as well as how risks may be evaluated and managed. The course includes four dynamic modules that focus on specific risks: food; climate change; human health; and nuclear power. You’ll explore ways to manage environmental risks as they become increasingly complex, with the aim of promoting sustainability. Lively discussions will allow you to share your own relevant professional experience and benefit from that of others.

Climate change occurs when changes in Earth’s climate system result in new weather patterns that last for at least a few decades, and maybe for millions of years. The climate system is comprised of five interacting parts, the atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water), cryosphere (ice and permafrost), biosphere (living things), and lithosphere (earth’s crust and upper mantle). The climate system receives nearly all of its energy from the sun, with a relatively tiny amount from earth’s interior. The climate system also gives off energy to outer space. The balance of incoming and outgoing energy, and the passage of the energy through the climate system, determines Earth’s energy budget. When the incoming energy is greater than the outgoing energy, earth’s energy budget is positive and the climate system is warming. If more energy goes out, the energy budget is negative and earth experiences cooling.

As this energy moves through Earth’s climate system, it creates Earth’s weather and long-term averages of weather are called “climate”. Changes in the long term average are called “climate change”. Such changes can be the result of “internal variability”, when natural processes inherent to the various parts of the climate system alter Earth’s energy budget. Examples include cyclical ocean patterns such as the well-known El Nino Southern Oscillation and less familiar Pacific decadal oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Climate change can also result from “external forcing”, when events outside of the climate system’s five parts nonetheless produce changes within the system. Examples include changes in solar output and volcanism.

Human activities can also change earth’s climate, and are presently driving climate change through global warming.[ There is no general agreement in scientific, media or policy documents as to the precise term to be used to refer to anthropogenic forced change; either “global warming” or “climate change” may be used.