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Effect size of dietary risks on disease endpoints

Wildlife foraging on airfi elds Airports and military airfi elds represent a unique land use, particularly in suburban or urban environments (Kutschbach-Brohl et al. 2010). Consequently, grasslands and other habitats on or near airfi elds oft en provide foraging opportunities for wildlife that are hazardous to aviation. Dietary plasticity (i.e., variation in foods consumed) is an important factor to consider when evaluating the feeding habits and patt erns of resource selection by wildlife. Many factors, including time of year, species, sex, and age infl uence foraging in birds (Rotenberry 1980, Yard et al. 2004). For example, many birds shift their feeding patt erns from insectivory during the breeding season to frugivory during autumn migration or winter (Parrish 1997). Plasticity in avian diets can occur within a species, across Commentary 205 the range for a given species, across time, and among closely related species within the same general area. Localized studies are necessary to identify the particular forage resources being used by those species at specifi c airports, thus, allowing managers to reduce airport-specifi c att ractants. Also, some issues with bird species (and strike issues) might be localized to only certain places.