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Effect of some demographics’ variables

Measurement Validation In this study, we used previously empirically validated multi-item scales. Prior to launching the survey, we established their face validity through our field studies, interviews, and pilot field tests with pharmacy and entrepreneurship professionals and professors who were not part of our sample frame. All scale items were assessed on a seven-point, Likert-type scale ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree” (where 7 5 strongly agree). Table 2 displays each the constructs used in this study, the formal definition of each construct, the measurement items used for each construct, and the foundational papers from which each of the survey measures were taken. To confirm the measurement validity of the multi-item variables, we conducted confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using EQS 6.2 structural equation modeling (SEM) on the complete 223 respondent data set. Measurement model fit was assessed using a broad assortment of leading fit indices and the results suggest that the measures of the latent variables were at or near generally accepted cutoffs for evaluating measurement model