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domestic policies such as military spending,

The major ideas behind the causes of peace antedate 1918, but our thoughts about the policy incarnations of them begin primarily in the period following. The traditional mainstay of peace had been military deterrence, a shorthand for balancing. But some victors were wary of heavy reliance on deterrence because arms racing and entangling alliances were blamed for the collective disaster. However, this was mostly a matter of emphasis. Regardless of principles or loyalties, deterrence remained an unavoidable component of postwar policies. For instance, with German power depressed, the British fretted that France would act aggressively and worried that French aerial capability would threaten the isles. The British shifted their defense resources accordingly.30

The larger departures from history were in international legalism.[10]  See Jack Donnelly, “Realism and the Academic Study…[10] Its showpiece was the League of Nations, but this should not detract attention from the supporting ligatures. This was to be a more inclusive, rule-bound order, with more trade and self-determination, as was reflected in the seating at Versailles. To the right of the United States sat, in order: Uruguay, France, Czechoslovakia, Serbia, Portugal, Italy, Peru, Haiti, Greece, Belgium, Cuba, and Brazil. Of course this was more a matter of style than substance. The great power victors seldom consulted others and blithely touted national self-determination without a strong consensus of what that truly meant, especially in imperial spheres of influence such as Latin America and the Middle East.31

International legalism was pushed furthest by Woodrow Wilson. In his conception, there was no difference between good international ethics and good domestic ethics. International law should and could be public, transparent, and much like domestic law (or more accurately, his unique conception of the Golden Rule—Wilson was the dutiful son of a Southern minister, with all the accompanying freight.) Here is not the place to recite the Fourteen Points or Wilson’s daft failure to ensure U.S. membership in the League of Nations.