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“DNA sequencing versus standard prenatal aneuploidy screening”

The parents of the affected individual are typically genetically normal.[12] The probability increases from less than 0.1% in 20-year-old mothers to 3% in those of age 45.[3] The extra chromosome is believed to occur by chance, with no known behavioral activity or environmental factor that changes the probability.[13] Down syndrome can be identified during pregnancy by prenatal screening followed by diagnostic testing or after birth by direct observation and genetic testing.[5] Since the introduction of screening, pregnancies with the diagnosis are often terminated.[14][15] Regular screening for health problems common in Down syndrome is recommended throughout the person’s life.[8]

There is no cure for Down syndrome.[16] Education and proper care have been shown to improve quality of life.[6] Some children with Down syndrome are educated in typical school classes, while others require more specialized education.[7] Some individuals with Down syndrome graduate from high school, and a few attend post-secondary education.[17] In adulthood, about 20% in the United States do paid work in some capacity,[18] with many requiring a sheltered work environment.[7] Support in financial and legal matters is often needed.[9] Life expectancy is around 50 to 60 years in the developed world with proper health care.[8][9]