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difference between a prokaryote and a eukaryote cell

1. What is the difference between a prokaryote and a eukaryote cell?

2. Draw a eukaryote cell. Label and give the function of its main parts.

3. What is a somatic cell? 

4. What is a sex cell called?

5. What is meant by ‘genome’? 

6. What does it mean when we say that every organism’s DNA is homoplasmic? 

7. What structures in DNA turn food molecules into ATP, the high-energy molecule that powers cells and in turn, powers every tissue in the body? 

8. Why is DNA considered to be the body’s ‘genetic code’ or the ‘blueprint for life’? 

9. What is a chromosome? During which process do chromosomes appear? 

10. In somatic cells chromosomes occur in homologous pairs. One is the maternal chromosome and contains the DNA or genetic information from the mother, the other is the ___________chromosome and contains the DNA from the _________.

11. Within each chromosome, DNA molecules form a sequence or code that is a template for the production of a protein, or part of a protein. Each protein has a specific function, and collectively proteins determine all physical characteristics and govern the functions of all ________, ________ and organs in the body. 

12. Each protein generating code is a gene. The complete set of genes is called the ________.

13. Where in a cell is its DNA? 

14. “The genetic code, DNA, is universal.” Explain

15. On a separate page: 

a. Draw a DNA molecule and label the parts 

b. Draw and label a nucleotide. 

16. How does a DNA molecule replicate itself? Describe and draw the process. 

17. How do somatic cells replicate themselves? Describe (or draw) the process.

18. Which cells divide through meiosis? Describe (or draw) the process of meiosis. 

19. What is the evolutionary significance of meiosis? 

20. What can go wrong during meiosis?

21. Study Figure 3.14.  

Which of Gregor Mendel’s laws does it demonstrate?  

What does the Punnett Square demonstrate?  

Understand figures a and b thoroughly enough to explain it to the class. 

22. ‘Linkage’ is an exception to Mendel’s second law. How does linkage work? 

23. Chromosomes come in pairs. All normal human somatic cells have 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. How many pairs are there in all? 

24. To function normally each human cell has to have both members of each chromosome pair, with a total of how many chromosomes? 

25. What can happen if a fetus doesn’t have the correct number of chromosomes? 

26. Offspring inherit one member of each chromosomal pair from the father and one from the _______.  

27. Are partner chromosomes genetically identical? Explain

28. What is a karyotype? 

29. Does the genetic information carried by chromosome partners govern the same or different traits? 

30. How many pairs of chromosomes are there in a somatic cell (diploid)?

31. How many chromosomes are there in a gamete (sex cell) (haploid)?  

32. What is the female’s gamete called? What is the father’s gamete called?