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“Diagnostic accuracy of noninvasive detection of fetal trisomy 21 in maternal blood:

Tympanostomy tubes are often needed[20] and often more than one set during the person’s childhood.[39] Tonsillectomy is also often done to help with sleep apnea and throat infections.[20] Surgery, however, does not always address the sleep apnea and a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine may be useful.[39] Physical therapy and participation in physical education may improve motor skills.[100] Evidence to support this in adults, however, is not very good.[101]

Efforts to prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection with human monoclonal antibodies should be considered, especially in those with heart problems.[1] In those who develop dementia there is no evidence for memantine,[102] donepezil,[103] rivastigmine,[104] or galantamine.[105]

Plastic surgery has been suggested as a method of improving the appearance and thus the acceptance of people with Down syndrome.[106] It has also been proposed as a way to improve speech.[106] Evidence, however, does not support a meaningful difference in either of these outcomes.[106] Plastic surgery on children with Down syndrome is uncommon,[107] and continues to be controversial.[106] The U.S. National Down Syndrome Society views the goal as one of mutual respect and acceptance, not appearance.[107]

Many alternative medical techniques are used in Down syndrome; however, they are poorly supported by evidence.[106] These include: dietary changes, massageanimal therapychiropractic and naturopathy, among others.[106] Some proposed treatments may also be harmful.[