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Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture.

This framework emerged from empirical research conducted more than 30 years ago on the criteria that predict organizational effectiveness. From these empirical studies, two major dimensions consistently emerged. One dimension differentiates an emphasis on flexibility, discretion, and dynamism from an emphasis on stability, order, and control. For example, some organizations and managers are viewed as effective if they are changing, adaptable, and transformational. Other organizations and managers are viewed as effective if they are stable, predictable, and consistent. This continuum ranges from versatility and pliability on one end to steadiness and durability on the other end.

A second dimension differentiates an internal orientation with a focus on integration, collaboration, and unity from an external orientation with a focus on differentiation, competition, and rivalry. For example, some organizations and managers are viewed as effective if they have harmonious internal relationships and processes. Others are judged to be effective if they successfully compete against others and establish a market niche. This continuum ranges from cohesion and consonance on the one end to separation and independence on the other.