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development and differentiation cells of human body.

Thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) are produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland and are regulated by TSH made by the thyrotropes of the anterior pituitary gland. The effects of T4 in vivo are mediated via T3 (T4 is converted to T3 in target tissues). T3 is 3- to 5- fold more active than T4.

Thyroxine (3,5,3′,5′-tetraiodothyronine) is produced by follicular cells of the thyroid gland. It is produced as the precursor thyroglobulin (this is not the same as thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)), which is cleaved by enzymes to produce active T4.

The steps in this process are as follows:[

  1. The Na+/I symporter transports two sodium ions across the basement membrane of the follicular cells along with an iodide ion. This is a secondary active transporter that utilises the concentration gradient of Na+ to move Iagainst its concentration gradient.
  2. I is moved across the apical membrane into the colloid of the follicle by pendrin .
  3. Thyroperoxidase oxidizes two I to form I2. Iodide is non-reactive, and only the more reactive iodine is required for the next step.
  4. The thyroperoxidase iodinates the tyrosyl residues of the thyroglobulin within the colloid. The thyroglobulin was synthesised in the ER of the follicular cell and secreted into the colloid.
  5. Iodinated Thyroglobulin binds megalin for endocytosis back into cell.
  6. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) released from the anterior pituitary (also known as the adenohypophysis) binds the TSH receptor (a Gs protein-coupled receptor) on the basolateral membrane of the cell and stimulates the endocytosis of the colloid.
  7. The endocytosed vesicles fuse with the lysosomes of the follicular cell. The lysosomal enzymes cleave the T4 from the iodinated thyroglobulin.